|   home
Registration Form   |   What's New   |   Map Index   |   Letters From You   |   Vietnam War Statistics and Facts   |   Contributors   |   Mission Statement   |   About The Webmaster   |   History   |   Vietnam Memorials and Museums   |   After Action Reports   |   25th Operations   |   The Army Reporter   |   Stars And Stripes Index   |   Tropic Lightning News Index   |   War Stories Etc.   |   The Wall   |   Misc. Items, Etc.   |   Bob Hope Celebrities   |   Related Links   |   Contact Us   |   Cu Chi Base Map   |   The PX   |   Medical Issues   |   Diamondhead   |   Little Bears   |   Headquarters   |   Awards   |   Aviation Videos   |   Free On-Line Books and Pubs.   |   News Letter Index   |   25th Scrap Book   |   Operation Grunt Care Packages   |   25th ID KIA'S   |   Travel Guides   |   Restoration of 722   |   Where Are We   |   25thAviation Today
25th Operations
Operation Name
CTZ
TAO
Start Date
End Date
Allied Units Involved
Enemy Units Involved
Allied Operational Strength
Enemy Operational Strength
Allied KIA
Allied WIA
Allied MIA
Enemy KIA
Enemy WIA
Objective of Operation
Descriptive Narrative of Operation
Sources Used in Archive
"The Name of the Operation". Sometimes a Vietnamese and an American name is given.
S. Vietnam Corps Tactical Zone (I, II, III, IV)
Description of the tactical area of operation. This can include provinces, cities, towns, or landmarks.
A listing of the American, South Vietnamese, or other allied units involved in the operation. Each force is designated with its branch of service (e.g. USA=US Army, USMC=US Marine Corps, USAF= US Air Force, USN=US Navy, ARVN=Army of the Republic of Vietnam, VNN= South Vietnamese Navy)
A listing of the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong units involved in the operation. Each force is designated with its branch of service (e.g. PAVN=People's Army of Vietnam, VC=Viet Cong)
Total number of allied soldiers involved
Total number of enemy soldiers involved
Allied Killed-in-Action
Allied Wounded-in-Action
Allied Missing-in-Action
Enemy Killed-in-Action
Enemy Wounded-in-Action
Descriptive narrative of the operation's objectives (e.g. search-and-destroy, reconnaissance in force, etc.)
Descriptive narrative of the operation from beginning to end and its consequences.
A List of all the sources used to compile the information by title and author.
Ahina
III
Binh Duong and Tay Ninh Provinces, War Zone C
5/13/1967
5/18/1967
25th Infantry Division (HQ); 3rd Brigade, 4th Infantry Division (USA); 1st Brigade, 9th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Aiea
III?
Hau Nghia Province
8/8/1966
9/1/1966
1st Battalion, 27th Infantry (2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division, USA)
Search-and-destroy
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Akron
III
10 km North of Cu Chi
5/8/1966
5/11/1966
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search-and-destroy
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Akumu / Xay Duong 12-7
III
Binh Duong Province
7/8/1967
8/24/1967
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 7th ARVN Regiment
cordon and search operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Ala Moana
III
Binh Duong, Hau Nghai, and Tay Ninh Provinces
12/1/1966
5/14/1967
25th Infantry Division (USA)
VC
to push VC away from a major rice producing area near Sai Gon; search-and-destroy
In December of 1966, the US troops occasionally made contact with the VC near Duc Hoa. In 1967 the Division moved to along Highway 1. CEDAR FALLS was taking place at the same time and part of the division temporarily served there. In Late February the divison saw the heaviest action. The 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry and the 3d Squadron, 4th Cavalry engaged in a fight northeast of Cu Chi. After CEDAR FALLS ended, the action shifted to around Duc Hoa. During the time that the 25th Division was carrying out ALA MOANA, elements of the division pariticpated in JUNCTION CITY. Most of the division was assigned to clearing operations during ALA MOANA. However, little contact was made. After the operation concluded, the 25th Division focused on pacification in Hau Nghia Province.
The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia

Alice
III
Tay Ninh Province
9/1/1966
9/7/1966
196th Infantry Brigade (USA)
Security Operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Arc Light (B-52 Raids)
South Vietnam and Laos
South Vietnam and Laos, flown from Thailand and Guam
6/18/1965
8/15/1973
USAF B-52 Stratofortresses (7th, 22d, 91st, 99th, 306th, 320th, 454th, 461st Bomb Wings
VC; PAVN
31 B-52s lost
USAF B-52 bombing missions to support ground tactical operations and to interdict enemy supply lines in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia and later to strike at targets in North Vietnam
These operations were most often used in close air support (CAS) bombing raids of enemy base camps, troop concentrations, or supply lines. They were usually carried out at high altitudes and often called "aerial excavations" by the ground forces. Most of the sorties were carried out in South Vietnam, though a few were flown near the DMZ. The first ARC LIGHT raid occured on 28 June 1965, and though the media questioned its effectiveness, Gen. Westmoreland continued to support the program. Most missions during 1965 were saturation attacks, with a few tactical support missions. Eventually the need to deliver bigger payloads led to increasing the amount of bombs the B-52D could carry in the "Big Belly" program. In April of 1966, the bombers raided outside South Vietnam for the first time when bombing Laos to stop PAVN inflitrations in the Mu Gia Pass and later the Ho Chi Minh Trail. In 1968, the B-52s supported the U.S. Marines at Khe Sanh and attacked other targets including the A Shau Valley, the Kontum-Dak To border area, and the PAVN/VC infiltration area in War Zone C. Strikes continued throughout 1969. Vietnamizationn began to reduce ARC LIGHT raids during 1970, though missions continued to be flown in Laos and Cambodia. In April 1970, the B-52s flew in COMMANDO HUNT III. In response to the PAVN's Easter Offensive, the bombers participated in raids on Ha Noi and Hai Phong. LINEBACKER I and LINEBACKER II were composed of ARC LIGHT missions. Even though Ha Noi agreed to return to negotiations on 30 December 1972, the bombings continued until 15 August 1973 due to cease-fire violations. At the end of ARC LIGHT, 55 percent of the sorties were flown in South Vietnam. The USAF lost 31 B-52s, 18 to enemy fire and due 13 to operations problems.
The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast History
Atlanta (2nd part)
III
Binh Duong and Hau Nghia Provinces
11/18/1967
12/23/1967
25th Infantry Division (HQ, USA); 2d and 3d Brigades, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 5th ARVN Division
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Atlantic City
III
Binh Duong Province
9/13/1966
9/22/1966
3d Brigade, 1st Infantry Division (USA); 25th Infantry Division (USA); 173d Airborne Brigade (USA)
security and search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Atlas Wedge
III
40 miles northwest of Sai Gon, in the Michelin Rubber Plantation area
3/18/1969
4/2/1969
3d Brigade, 1st Infantry Division (USA); 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment (USA): 25th Infantry (USA); 1st Cavalry Divisions (1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry)
VC; 7th PAVN Division
20 (USA)
100 (USA)
421 (PAVN)
part of the larger TOAN THANG III Operation beginning on 17 February 1969; to enact the Vietnamization program with securing the local hamlets from VC and PAVN inrfiltration and control, while supporting the ARVN units that were to manage the area.
The operation targeted the 7th PAVN Division. Major contact developed on 30 March as the 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry followed a platoon-sized PAVN force north until the U.S. men came under fire in an ambush. The cavalry-men positioned their armored personnel carriers (APCs) so that all the automatic weapons could be fired at the attackers. The Charlie Troop began to move south. Then Bravo Troop moved in to continue the attack. The PAVN suffered heavily. This operation was followed on 10 April by ATLAS POWER.
The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Attleboro
III
War Zone C, Tay Ninh Province
9/14/1966
11/25/1966
196th Light Infantry Brigade and 2d Brigade,25th Infantry Division (USA); 1st Infantry "Big Red One" Division (USA); 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry (USA); 3d Brigade, 4th Infantry Division (USA); 173d Airborne Brigade(USA); 11th Armored Cavalry (USA); ARVN Battalions
9th VC Division (101st PAVN Regiment, 271st, 272d, and 273d VC Regiments)
155
494
1,106
A search-and-destroy operation meant to combat test the 196th Light Infantry Brigade against "light" guerrilla opposition
This operation began as a single battalion air assault leading to a search-and-destroy mission. By the time it ended in November, it had expanded into the largest U.S. Joint operation of the war at that time. During Phase I, there was relatively little contact with the VC as the 196th Infantry Brigade conducted operations in the area. In late October / early November(?) the 196th Brigade and the 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry encountered the 9th VC Division. During Phase II, the 27th Infantry and the 9th VC Division's Regiments fought a major three day battle. More contacts with the VC expanded the operation and command eventually passed from the 1st Infantry Division to II Field Force, the U.S. headquaters near Saigon. During Phase III, the 1st Infantry Division took over the fight. Soon afterwards, the 3d Brigade, 1st Division moved into Suoi Da and the 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry moved to a landing zone to the north. The 2d Battalion, 28th Infantry had cleared the area and both battalions were in position by nightfall. On 8 November, reconnaissance-by-fire began under the 1st Battalion's command. The VC began to use intense fire and the VC began to assault the perimeter. 1st Battalion artillery fire and air strikes defeated the VC. The operation included many other battles between the Allied forces and the Communists, but the battle on the 8th was probably the most significant. At its conclusion, a large base camp was discovered which housed one of the largest weapons caches found up to that time. Operation ATTLEBORO illustrated that, due to better maneuverability and firepower, the Allies had an advantage in stand-up fights. This would be tested again in later operations.
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton; The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Historical Atlas Of The Vietnam War, by Harry G. Summers, Jr.; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Barking Sands
III
Tay Ninh and Binh Duong Provinces; in the Ho Bo Woods, Bui Loi Woods, Fillhol Plantation, and the Iron Triangle
5/19/1967
12/7/1967
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Included Operations KAWELA, AKUMU, WAIMEA, and KUNIA
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Birmingham
III
Tay Ninh Province - War Zone C
4/24/1966
5/17/1966
1st and 3d Brigades, 1st Infantry Division; 25th ARVN Division
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Blue Jay
III
Tay Ninh Province
8/30/1966
9/29/1966
196th Infantry Brigade (Light, USA)
to deploy the 196th Light Infantry Brigade from Vung Tau to Tay Ninh
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Blue Light (Holokai XII)
II
from Hawaii to Pleiku Province
12/23/1965
1/23/1966
two Military Airlift Command units (USAF); the 60th and 61st Military Airlift Wings (MAW) (USAF); 25th Infantry Division
to transport men and equipment required for the 25th Infantry's advance deployment team; to transport the remainder of the 3d Brigade of the 25th Infantry Division; security operation for the arrival of the 25th Infantry Division
This was the first major U.S. Air Force airlift operation of the Vietnam War. It transported men and supplies from Hawaii to Pleiku in the middle of an already heavy transport schedule. C-141s and C-133s were used to transport the cargo. In the first phase of the operation, the planes transported the men and equipment of the 25th Infantry's advance deployment team to Pleiku. The second phase involved transporting the rest of the 3d brigade of the 25th Infantry Division. This operation tested the new C-141 and reasserted the usefulness of the C-133. The Air Force managed to place military power in previously inaccessible areas.
The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker
Bobcat Tracker
III
Hau Ngai Province
1/30/1966
2/3/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (HQ, USA)
clearing operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Bold Lancer I
Cambodia
Cambodia
5/4/1970
5/14/1970
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Bold Lancer II
Cambodia
Cambodia
5/15/1970
6/28/1970
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Camden (2nd part)
III
Hau Nghia and Tay Ninh Provinces
12/16/1967
12/31/1967
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 49th ARVN Regiment
searchand destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Cedar Falls (Operation Niagara - Cedar Falls)
III
Iron Triangle, 25 miles northwest of Saigon including the Thanh Dien Forest Reserve; VC Military Region 4 Headquarters; Ben Suc and surrounding villages; Binh Duong, Hau Nghia and Tay Ninh Provinces
1/8/1967
1/27/1967
2d and 3d Brigades, 1st Infantry Division (USA); 3d Brigade, 4th Infantry Division (USA); 1st Division, 26th Infantry (USA); 2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 199th Light Infantry Brigade (USA); 196th Infantry Brigade (Light, USA); 173d Airborne Brigade(USA); 11th Armored Cavalry (USA); 5th ARVN Division; VNN 3d Riverine Company; 30th River Assault Group (VNN???)
165th and 272d VC Regiments; VC Main Force Phu Loi Battalion
72 (USA); 11 (ARVN)
337 (USA); 8 (ARVN)
720-750 (VC)
To interdict VC control of the transportation and communications network in the area; search and destroy operation to seal off the Iron Triangle and crush everything within it
The II Field Force (IIFFV) chose a "hammer-and-anvil" attack to be used on the target, with the anvil along the Saigon River at the southwestern boundary of the Iron Triangle and the hammer to swing through the triangle. The local residents were evacuated and the area was cleared of vegetation. The plan was only known to a few IIFFV personel and ARVN was not brieffed until two days beforehand. During Phase I, from 5-8 January, the anvil was positioned with the ARVN VNN forces, the 25th Infantry Division, and the 199th Light Infantry Brigade setting up south of the Saigon River. On 9 January, Phase II began with the hammer movement of the 11th Armored Cavalry and the 173d Airborne Brigade and the airmobile assaults of the 3d Brigade, 1st Infantry Division. With two U.S. and one ARVN infantry divisions, this was the largest operation to date. The 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry attacked Ben Suc, the VC headquarters in the secret base area, and three surrounding villages. The battalion was airlifted into the Ben Suc and by midmorning had secured the village. Meanwhile the forces involved in the hammer conducted search-and-destroy methods, searching by day and amsbushing by night. The VC avoided defensive positions as they tried to slip away from the Iron Triangle area. As the operation ended, the 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry protected the engineer forces still clearing the area until 26 January. CEDAR FALLS provided lessons concerning the infantry and engineers working together to uncover the VC as well as refined the systems for clearing VC tunnel systems and preparing helicopter landings. VC documents revealed much to the Allies about their enemies and the VC were siginificantly setback in the area, though far from destroyed. There were 280 VC POWs.
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton; The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Historical Atlas Of The Vietnam War, by Harry G. Summers, Jr.; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Circle Pines
III
Hau Nghia Province - Ho Bo Woods and Filhol Rubber Plantation
3/28/1966
4/5/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 7th ARVN Regiment
search and destroy operation
First operation in which massed armored battalions were used.
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Clean Sweep
III
Hau Nghia Province
2/22/1966
2/24/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (HQ, USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Clean Sweep (part 2 )
III
Hau Nghia Province
12/30/1968
12/30/1968
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Dviision (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Cliff Dweller
III
Tay Ninh Province - Nui Ba Den (Black Virgin Mountain)
10/21/1969
10/24/1969
1st Brigade, 24th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Cliff Dweller IV
III
Tay Ninh Province - Nui Ba Den
1/4/1970
1/11/1970
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Coco Palms
III
Binh Duong and Hau Nghia Provinces - northwest of Cu Chi; Boi Loi Woods
6/25/1966
7/1/1966
1st Battalion, 5th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Diamond Head
III
Tay Ninh and Binh Duong Provinces - War Zone C; Michelin Rubber Plantation, Ho Bo Woods and the Trapezoid
5/17/1967
12/7/1967
3d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In southeast Asia
Eagle II / Toan Thang 9/68
III
Tay Ninh Province
9/11/1968
9/25/1968
III Corps Tactical Zone (HQ); ARVN Airborne Division; 2d, 5th, 6th, 9th ARVN Airborne Battalions; 2d, 3d, 4th VNMC Battalions
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Ewa
III
Hau Nghia Province
7/8/1966
7/13/1966
1st Battalion, 27th Infantry (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Fairfax
III
in and around Saigon
11/30/1966
12/14/1967
a battalion each from 1st, 4th, and 25th Infantry Divisions (USA); 199th Infantry Brigade (USA); 5th Ranger Group (ARVN)
1,043
To improve security around Saigon
Security around the capital was deteriorating, so Gen. Westmoreland decided to use U.S. troops in and advisory effort to inspire the Vietnamese. The II Field Force Vietnam commander assigned one U.S. Battalion to each district in Gia Dinh, where the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces were to operate jointly to resore security. Eventually the South Vietnamese would manage everything on their own. Though security did improve throughout this time, little progress was made in indentifying or eliminating the Viet Cong Infastructure (VCI). The operation ended in a stalemate and later analysis of FAIRFAX led to the establishment of the Phoenix program.
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton; The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker
Fairfax / Rang Dong
III
Gia Dinh and Long An Provinces
11/30/1966
12/14/1967
1st Infantry Division (USA); 4th Infantry Division (USA); 25th Infantry Division (USA); 199th Infantry Brigade (Light)(Separate)(USA)5th ARVN Division
search and destroy operation in Capitol Military District
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Fargo
III
Hau Nghia Province
6/12/1966
6/14/1966
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Fitchburg
III
Tay Ninh Province
11/25/1966
4/8/1967
196th Infantry Brigade (Light, USA)
search and destroy operation; later phase a cover to put the 196th Infantry Brigade in position for CEDAR FALLS
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operaations In Southeast Asia
Fort Smith
III
Hau Nghia Province along Highway 1
6/3/1966
7/3/1966
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy and pacification operation along Highway 1
Preliiminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Fresno (Hau Nghia Province)
III
Hau Nghia Province
7/13/1966
7/15/1966
2d Battalion, 27th Infantry, 2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Gadsen
III
Tay Ninh Province - War Zone C
2/1/1967
2/20/1967
25th Infantry Division (USA); 3d Brigade, 4th Infantry Division (USA); 196th Infantry Brigade (Light, USA)
search and destroy operation
predecessor to JUNCTION CITY
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Helemano
III
Hau Nghia Province
6/17/1966
6/21/1966
4th Battalion, 9th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Honolulu
III
Hau Nghia Province - vicininty of Cu Chi
3/14/1966
3/19/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Joliet
III
6 km east of Cu Chi
6/6/1966
6/9/1966
4th Battalion, 9th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Junction City
III
War Zone C, Tay Ninh Province and bordering provinces, 70 miles north of Saigon
2/21/1967
5/14/1967
1st, 4th, 9th and 25th Infantry Divisions (USA); 3d Brigade, 4th Infantry Division (USA); 196th Infantry Brigade (Light, USA); 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment; 173d Airborne Brigade; Task Force Alpha's 1st and 5th Battalions (VMC); TF Wallace's 35th and 36th Ranger Battalion (ARVN); 3d Battalion (ARVN); 3d Battalion, 1st Cavalry Regiment (ARVN)
9th VC Division; 272d VC Regiment; 273d VC Regiment; 101st PAVN Regiment
282
1,576
2,728
To search out and destroy the VC and PAVN in the area; to destroy the Central Office for South Vietnam, the enemy's headquarters in the south; to establish a Special Forces CIDG camp and airfield at Prek Klok from which to monitor enemy movement
Phase I: February 21-March 14; Phase II: March 15-April 15; Phase III: April 16-May 14. As one of the largest Allied offensive operations in the war, JUNCTION CITY involved four ARVN and 22 U.S. battalions. Many of the lessons learned in CEDAR FALLS were applied to this operation. The plan called for blocking positions with the 196th Infantry Brigade in the west and the 1st Infantry Division in the east. To the north, the 173d Airborne Brigade and the 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division would act as a block. Then the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment and the 2d Brigade, 25th Infantry division would sweep in from the south. Operations GADSEN and TUCSON positioned the flanking forces. The 2d Battalion, 503d Infantry parachuted into their north formation in the only major U.S. "combat" jump of the war. Another eight infantry battalions were flown to their positions in the north in one of the largest mass helicopter lifts of the war. Then the forces to the south began their sweep. The 173d Ariborne Brigade found the VC Central Information Office. The 272d VC Regiment attacked the 168th Engineer Battalion as they built a Special Forces base camp at Prek Klok. JUNCTION CITY entered Phase II on 18 March. During this time the operation focused on clearing the eastern sector of War Zone C. The 1st Brigade, 9th Infantry Division replaced the 173d Airborne Brigade. On 19 March the 273d VC Regiment nearly overran the 9th Infantry's Troop A, 3d Squadron, 5th Cavalry at Ap Bau Bang. Troop B and C came to their aid and the Air Force conducted air support. On the 21 March, the 273d VC Regiment attacked the 3d Battalion, 22d Infantry and 2d Battalion, 77th Artillery of the 4th Infantry Division at Fire Support Base Gold. The base was relieved by the 2d Battalion, 34th Armor. One final large fight occured at LZ George. Company B, 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry came under heavy fire. Company A had to be sent in to relieve them. They withdrew to the defensive perimeter near the LZ. On 1 April, the 271st VC Regiment and the 1st Battalion, 70th VC Guards Regiment attacked. It took artillery fire, helicopter gunships, and tactical air support to drive them off. In an unplanned Phase III one mechanized battalion from the 25th Infantry Division and an ARVN battalion continued to sweep through War Zone C, but discovered very little. As a result of JUNCTION CITY, the Communists lost many troops. However, although the VC 9th Division was greatly depleted, within a year they would be back for the Tet Offensive. Also, Gen. Giap realized the vulnerability of a headquarters in South Vietnam, and after JUNCTION CITY he moved it to Cambodia. VC headquarters in Cambodia meant that the U.S. could not attack without expanding to large-scale operations outside of Vietnam. Thus the Allies only had the option to use a defensive campaign.
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton: The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kaena
III
Hau Nghia Province
4/13/1966
4/14/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation in support of Operation Makaha
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kahala
III
Hau Nghia Province - vicinity of Cu Chi
4/16/1966
4/26/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kahana I and II
III
Long Khanh and Binh Tuy Provinces
7/2/1966
7/31/1966
25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kahuku
III
west of Cu Chi
4/6/1966
4/8/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (HQ); 49th ARVN Regiment
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kailua
III
Hau Nghia Province
10/11/1966
11/14/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kalamazoo
4/13/1966
4/14/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (HQ, USA); 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kalihi
Fillhol Plantation
9/15/1966
11/14/1966
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kawela
III
Iron Triangle area
6/10/1967
6/25/1967
25th Infantry Division (HQ, USA); 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation in Iron Triangle area
included in Operation BARKING SANDS
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kipapa
III
Filhol Plantation
8/31/1966
9/12/1966
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Koko Head
III
Hau Nghia and Binh Duong Provinces
7/23/1966
8/6/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
formerly Operation Mokuleia; redesignated July 23, 1966
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kokuliea
III
Hau Nghia and Binh Duong Provinces
7/14/1966
7/22/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kolchak I
III
Hau Nghia Province
2/26/1966
2/28/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kole Kole
III
Hau Nghia, Tay Ninh, and Binh Duong Provinces
5/13/1967
12/7/1967
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
645
search and destroy operation
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Kunia
III
Tay Ninh and Binh Duong Provinces
5/19/1967
12/7/1967
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division
search and destroy operation in the Ho Bo Woods, Bui Loi Woods, Filhol Plantation, and the Iron Triangle.
Included operations KAWELA, AKUMA, WAIMEA, and KUNIA
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Oeprations In Southeast Asia
Lahaina
III
Hau Nghia Province
8/7/1966
9/1/1966
2d Battalion, 27th Infantry, 2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
pacification operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Lanikai
III
Long An Province
9/14/1966
2/13/1967
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
pacification operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Lihue
III
Highways 1 and 22 between Cu Chi and Tay Ninh
5/2/1966
5/12/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
security on Highways 1 and 22, between Cu Chi and Tay Ninh
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Maikiki
6/3/1966
6/9/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); ARVN
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Maili
III
Hau Nghia Province - southwest of Cu Chi
4/27/1966
5/12/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Makaha
III
Hau Nghia Province - northwest of Cu Chi
4/11/1966
4/14/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Makalapa
III
Gia Dinh or Hau Nghia Provinces
3/18/1967
4/21/1967
Phase I: 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); Phase II: 1st and 2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Phase I: March 18 - April 7, 1967; Phase II: April 8 - April 21, 1967
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Makalapa II
III
Hau Nghia Province
4/8/1967
4/19/1967
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Makiki
III
Hau Nghia Province
6/3/1966
6/9/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 49th ARVN Regiment
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Mokuliea
III
Binh Duong and Hau Nghia Provinces
7/14/1966
7/22/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
redesignated Operation COCO HEAD July 23, 1966
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Monroe
III
3/25/1966
3/27/1966
2d Brigade, 1st Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Nashville
III
12/28/1966
12/30/1966
USA
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Niagara / Cedar Falls
see Cedar Falls
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Oahu
III
Tay Ninh Province
8/1/1966
8/31/1966
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Paddy Bridge
III
Hau Nghia Province
2/14/1966
2/16/1966
2d Battalion, 27th Infantry (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Piedmont Swift
III
Hau Nghia Province
11/24/1968
11/30/1968
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Quyet Thang (Resolve to Win)
III
Sai Gon area and Bien Hoa, Gia Dinh, Hau Nghia, Lam Son and Long An Provinces
3/10/1968
4/8/1968
1st Infantry Division (USA); 9th Infantry Division (USA); 2d and 3d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 199th Infantry Brigade (Light)(Separate)(USA); 11th Armored Cavalry (USA); 5th ARVN Division; 25th ARVN Division; ARVN Airborne Battalions; Vietnamese Marine Corp Task Forces. 22 U.S. and 11 ARVN battalions were involved
2,658
reconnaissance in force; search and destroy / combat operation
Largest operation to date.
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Ranch Hand
RVN
South Vietnam
1/12/1962
1/7/1971
to deny Communist forces the use of jungle cover through defoliation and to deny them access to food crops in South Vietnam
In 1961 a U.S.-RVN counterinsurgency center began evaluating the use of herbicides VC food sources and foliage. In November of 1961, the first Special Aerial Spray Flight was deplyed for Vietnam. Finally on 1 January 1962 the first planes arrived at Tan Son Nhut Airport and missions began on the 12th. They started by clearing the foliage along a major roadway north of Sai Gon. Later forests and rice-growing areas were targeted. At first the results were less succesful than expected, so the system was altered to release larger droplets and minimize drift. Also, the planes had to fly extremely close to the ground, around 150 feet, and in straight, level paths. This made them easy targets for ground fire. Tactic did change as operations expanded to the mountain passes and tightly defined areas. Even dive-bombing tactics were used. The operation continued to grow in aircraft and personnel. During the 1968 Tet Offensive, RANCH HAND crews flew airlift missions and later flew missions in Laos and Thailand. In 1969, the National Cancer Institute linked health problems to herbicide exposure. Also, claims that Cambodian land had been intentionally sprayed fueled public disapproval. For these reasons operation RANCH HAND declined. On 7 January 1971, the last three missions of the war were flown.
The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker
Rock Crusher
4/29/1970
combined with offensive operation into Cambodia
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Santa Fe (1966)
III
Hau Nghia Province
6/13/1966
7/4/1966
1st Battalion, 27th Infantry (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Saratoga
III
Binh Duong, Gia Dinh, Hau Nghia, and Tay Ninh Provinces
12/7/1967
3/11/1968
25th Infantry Division (USA)
3,862
search and destroy operation
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Sunset Beach
III
Hau Nghia Province
9/1/1966
10/11/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Taro Leaf
III
Hau Nghia Province
2/3/1966
2/15/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (HQ, USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Tet Offensive 1968: Battle of Saigon
III
area around Saigon
1/31/1968
3/7/1968
II Field Force Vietnam (1st Infantry Division, 9th Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, 101st Airborne Division, 199th Light Infantry Brigade, and 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment (USA); Australian, New Zealand, and Thai forces in the area; coordinated efforts of ARVN III and IV Corps, including the 5th, 7th, 9th, 18th, 21st, and 25th divisions)
35 Battalions (1 PAVN and 2 VC Divisions) including 5th VC Division, 7th PAVN Division, D16 VC Battalion, 267th VC Battalion, battalion from the 271st VC Regiment
to protect the Sai Gon Circle
In December 1967, the U.S. had turned the responsibility of the defense of Sai Gon over to the S. Vietnamese. The IIFFV battalions were sent to VC campaigns on the Cambodian border in response to Gen. Giap's attempts to draw U.S. forces away from the major cities. Luckily for the Allies, the border campagin was not on schedule. The General of the IIFFV saw something odd in the patterns of enemy movement and got permission to keep some battalions within the Saigon circle. When Tet broke out, the 35 Communist battalions were up against a much bigger IIFFV force than they anticipated. The Communists had a series of 8 major objectives to bring down the RVN government and trigger a "General Uprising". But because of the great secrecy of the plans, they suffered coordination problems. Some areas began the attack a day early and thus alerted the U.S. and ARVN units. On 31 January, a platoon attacked the Saigon Presidential Palace. Not long after this attack , the U.S. Embassy was also attacked. Though the VC Sappers never got inside of the embassy building, media pictures of the scene sent a demoralizing message around the world. However, the Embassy itself was relatively unimportant. Next the S-10 sapper battalion took the National Radio Station and planned to broadcast pre-recorded tapes proclaiming a general uprising. However, the broadcast link was severed on a prearranged signal. The VC took the ARVN depot complex at Go Vap, but the retreating ARVN troops had rendered the guns useless. At Tan Son Nhut, the VC attacked the air base. MACV sent a call for help, and 3d squadron, 5th Cavalry sent Troop C to help. Troop C was badly mauled, but halted the VC attack for awhile. Fighting was also going on at the Long Bing-Bien Hoa complex. Company A from the 9th Infantry Division's 2d Battalion, 47th Infantry was sent to relieve the attack on a large POW compound between the cities. Companies B and C were sent to Long Binh and Bien Hoa, respectively, to relieve the forces there. Meanwhile, Troop A, 3d Squadron, 5th Cavalry fought to relieve the Bien Hoa Air Base, where it linked up with the 101st Airborne Division's 2d Battalion, 506th Infantry. Except for in Cho Lon, most of the fighting inside the Sai Gon Circle was over in days. By 3 February, the N. Vietnamese were on the defensive. Most Communist survivors had traveled to this area. The Communists set up a system to execute the district's leaders and keep out the Allies. Cho Lon experienced a month-long reign of terror. Though U.S. forces entered Cho Lon on 31 January, the area was finally cleared out by 7 March. It was during the clean up of these operations that Gen. Loan was filmed executing a VC prisoner on 31 March. This image produced much outrage and anti-war feelings throughout the world.
The Encyclopedia Of The Vientam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Historical Atlas Of The Vietnam War, by Harry G. Summers, Jr.
Toan Thang (Complete Victory)
III
Capital Military District, near Sai Gon; Bien Hoa, Binh Duong, Binh Long, Binh Tuy, Gia Dinh, Hau Nghia, Long An, Long Khanh, Phuoc Long, Phuoc Tuy, and Tay Ninh Provinces
4/7/1968
5/31/1968
III ARVN Corps and II Field Force, Vietnam (42 U.S. and 37 Vietnamese battalions) (3d Brigade, 9th Infantry Division (USA); 1st Infantry Division (USA); 25th Infantry Division (USA); 199th Infantry Brigade (Light)(Separate)(USA); 11th Armored Cavalry (USA); 1st Australian Task Force; 25th ARVN Division ; 1st-2d-3d-5th-6th-7th-8th-9th-11th ARVN Airborne Battalions; 1st-2d-5th-6th VN Marine Battalions; 30th-33d-38th-81st ARVN Ranger Battalions)
VC 267th Local Force Battalion; PAVN
7,645 (VC/PAVN)
To stop VC and PAVN attacks on Sai Gon, motivated by the 1968 Tet Offensive
This was the first of many Allied operations with the same code name. It began as 11 separate operations in the RVN, but MACV combined them into Operation TOAN THANG. In May after peace talks were announced, MACV and ARVN strengthened defenses around Sai Gon in anticipation of more VC/PAVN attacks. On the 4th, the VC launched "Mini-Tet" with attacks concentrated on Sai Gon-Bien Hoa highway bridge. The RVN Marines held the bridge. In a counterattack launched by the 25th Infantry Division, the VC were defeated near Tan Son Nhut Airport. The VC 267th managed to infiltrate Sai Gon and occupy parts of the city. The 38th ARVN Ranger Battalion eventually beat back the VC, inspite of heavy losses. Posing the most serious threat, two VC battalions did manage to capture the Y-Bridge which linked downtown Sai Gon to the Nha Be District. The 2d Battalion, 47th Infantry and the 5th Battalion, 60th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division fought for 6 days to retake the bridge and surrounding area. TOAN THANG ended on the 25th May, but Mini-Tet continued into June.
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton; The Encyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Toan Thang 41
III
Cambodian Invasion, "Angel's Wing" area
4/14/1970
4/17/1970
3d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 49th ARVN Regiment; 3d ARVN Ranger Group (36th and 52d Ranger Battalions); 31st ARVN Ranger Battalion; 10th ARVN Armored Cavalry; 18th ARVN Armored Cavalry
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Toan Thang 42
III
Cambodian Invasion
4/29/1970
7/22/1970
1st Cavalry Division (USA); 9th Infantry Division (USA); 11th Armored Cavalry (USA); 5th ARVN Division; 9th ARVN Division; 18th ARVN Division; 25th ARVN Division; 7th-8th-9th ARVN Airborne Battalions; 2d and 4th ARVN Ranger Groups; 30th-31st-33d-34th-36th-36th-51st-52d ARVN Ranger Battalions
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Toan Thang 43 (Total Victory)
III
eastern boudaries of Tay Ninh, Binh Long, and Phuoc Long Provinces ("fishhook" area)
5/1/1970
6/30/1970
1st Cavalry Division (USA); 11trh Armored Cavalry (USA); ARVN Airbonre Division
Cambodian operations
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Toan Thang 44
III
Cabodian Invasion, west of Tay Ninh Province
5/6/1970
5/14/1970
25th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Toan Thang 46
III
Cambodian Invasion
5/6/1970
6/27/1970
5th ARVN Division
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Toan Thang II
III
Binh Duong, Gia Dinh, Hau Nghia, Long An, Long Khanh, Phuoc Long, and Tay Ninh Provinces
6/1/1968
2/16/1969
1st Cavalry Division (USA); 1st Infantry Division (USA); 9th Infantry Division (USA); 25th Infantry Division (USA); 3d Brigade, 101st Airborne Division (USA); 199th Infantry Brigade (Light)(Separate)(USA); 11th Armored Cavalry (USA); 1st Australian Task Force; Royal Thai Army Volunteer Regiment/Force; 1st-3d-5th-6th-7th-8th-9th ARVN Airborne Battalions; 1st-2d-5th-6th VN Marine Battalions; 30th-33d-35th-38th-81st ARVN Ranger Battalions
security operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Toan Thang III
III
Binh Duong, Gia Dinh, Hau Nghia, Long An, and Tay Ninh Provinces
2/16/1969
10/31/1969
25th Infantry Division (USA); 3d Brigade, 9th Infantry Division (USA)
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Toan Thang IV
III
11/1/1969
everybody
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Wahiawa
III
Hau Nghia Province - 15 km north-northwest Cu Chi in Boi Loi Woods, Ho Bo Woods, and Filhol Plantation
5/16/1966
5/27/1966
1st and 2d Brigades, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Waialua
III
Hau Nghia, Tay Ninh and Long An Provinces
3/7/1967
4/8/1967
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In South East Asia
Waikiki
III
Hau Nghia Province
3/4/1966
3/4/1966
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Miliary Operations In Southeast Asia
Waimea
III
Tay Ninh and Binh Duong Provinces
5/19/1967
12/7/1967
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA)
search and destroy operation in the Ho Bo Woods, Bui Loi Woods, Fillhol Plantation, and the Iron Triangle
part of Operation BARKING SANDS
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Wheeler Place
III
Binh Duong Province
1/22/1969
2/3/1969
2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 2d ARVN Division
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Militry Operations In Southeast Asia
Wilderness
III
Tay Ninh Province
3/8/1968
4/7/1968
1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 199th Infantry Brigade (Light)(Separate)(USA)
search and destroy operation
Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia
Yellowstone
III
War Zone C (Tay Ninh Province)
12/7/1967
2/24/1968
2d and 3d Brigades, 25th Infantry Division (USA); 49th ARVN Regiment
VC (specifically the 271st and 272d Regiments)
29 (USA, in battle on 1 Jan. 1968)
159 (USA, in battle on 1 Jan. 1968)
1,254 (300 in battle on 1 Jan. 1968)
search and destroy operation; To locate and destroy VC installations in War Zone C and to prevent Communists from penetrating into the III Corps Tactical Zone
At the opening of YELLOWSTONE, the USA experienced frequent mortar attacks, but very few ground contacts with the VC. However, it was obvious that War Zone C was still a major VC and PAVN logistical base. On 1 January the 271st and 272d VC Regiments assaulted the 3d Brigade's main fire support base, Burt. The VC forces charged the base and fought into the perimeter. In the intense battle that followed, close-in ariel napalm strikes were called and reserves from the perimeter were rushed in. By dawn the VC had been forced back, leaving fairly heavy casualties. After this battle, the 2d Brigade experienced continuous fighting along the Cambodian border. When the Tet Offensive broke out in 1968, half of the 25th Division's maneuver battalions were deployed in YELLOWSTONE and not able to immediately support the 1st Brigade and ARVN units. Small-unit fighting continued throughout Tet in the Tay Ning Province.
Vietnam: Order Of Battle, by Shelby L. Stanton; The Enyclopedia Of The Vietnam War: A Political, Social & Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker; Preliminary Checklist Of United States Military Operations In Southeast Asia